Foundations of and Obligations in Islam (V1)

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A search to access and absorb (Foundations of and Obligations in Islam), at a glance with adequate Quranic references, gives an impression of being
deceptively easy. But for those residing in the Western World, inclusive of but not limited to, youths and teenagers desiring to have easy access, the
task is daunting, to say the least. The ensuing write-up has been developed to fill in the gap. Using a step by step approach, it allows the reader to acquire as much information as he may need while leaving out the details which may not be of equal interest to everyone.


The compilation is neither a Fatwa nor a substitute for a consultation to detailed religious workouts (Fiqh related documents) which must continue, as always, is the true basis for everything. Accordingly, wherever conflict arises, this write up must stand corrected, with apologies for the inconvenience in advance.


Quran is the only source on which this write up is based. Accordingly, all the references contained herein consists of Quranic Ayaats. No attempt has been made to refer to any alternate source.


The cited Quranic references are limited instead of being comprehensive. Highlights of such references (Quranic Ayaats). are cataloged under Annexure-1 (Foundations of Islam) and Annexure-2 (Obligations in Islam). The information also includes important narratives. Nothing included therein is without citation of Quranic references.

Road Map:

  • For those interested in the fundamentals only, Parts (A) and (B) are adequate to have a clear understanding of the foundations along with associated obligations.
  • Desired corresponding Quranic verses are readily available under Annexes 1&2.
  • Quranic verses in respect of Foundations marked (C) and narratives marked (D) are cataloged under Annexure-1. Similarly, data concerning Obligations are marked (E) and (F) respectively for each category.

List of Contents:

A. Foundations of Islam

A.1 Additional Foundations of Islam (Shia Fiqh)

B. Obligations in Islam

B.1 Additional Obligations in Islam (Shia Fiqh)

Annexure-1: Foundations of Islam (References)

References: Quranic Ayaats (C) and Narratives (D)

C.1 Believe in Allah Unseen (Ghaib)

C.2 Allah’s Absolute Justice (Adl)

C.3. Prophet-hood (Nabuwat)

C.4 Allah’s Books

D.1 Mubahila

C.5 Day of Judgement (Qiyamat)

C.6 Qibla (Makkah)

Imamat: (Shia Fiqh)

D.2 Concept and Obligations

D.3 The Commencement (Ghadir Khum)

D.4 The Continuation

D.5 The Culmination (The Twelfth Imam)

C.7 Quranic Verses outlining Imams and Imamat

Annexure-2: Obligations in Islam (References)

References: Quranic Ayaats (E) and Narratives (F)

E.1 Prayers (Salat):

E.2 Fasting (Ramadhan)

E.3 Obligatory Charity (Zakat)

E.4 Pilgrimage to (Kabbah)

E.5 Jehad: Fighting in the Way of Allah

B.1 Additional Obligations in Islam (Shia Fiqh):

E.6 Khoms (Additional Charity)

E.7 Amar Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anil Munkar

7.F What is Amr Bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar?

E.8 (a):Tabarra (Disliking any or all things not liked by Allah)

F.8 (a) Understanding Tabarra?

E.8 (b): Tawwalla (loving everything loved by Allah)

F.8 (b) Understanding Tawwalla?

A. Foundations of Islam

Believe in one God (Tawhid):

Unseen (Ghaib):

(Baqarah-2: 03&255) : (Imran-3: 179) : (Anam-6: 59) : (Akhals-112: 01) : (Maidah-5: 73) : (Nisa-4: 171) : (Anam-6: 104) >>> See Annexure-1

Justice (Adl):

Believe in Allah’s Absolute Justice (Nisa-4: 40): (Anam-6: 116) >>> See Annexure-1

Believe in Prophet-hood (Nabuwat):

Believe in Muhammad (as Allah’s Last Prophet) and all earlier prophets, messengers and angels: (Baqarah-2: 04): (Imran-3: 84): (Jumuah-62: 02 (Muhammad-47: 02): (Ahzab-33: 40): (Fath-48-29) >>> See Annexure-1

Believe in Allah’s Books:

Quran being the final revelation descended on His last Prophet (Muhammad): Earlier known books (Tawrat and Bible/Injil): (Baqarah-2: 04): (Waqiah-56: 77-79 (Bani Isarail-17: 09): (Araf-7: 204): (Imran-3: 48): (Imran-3: 65): (Maidah-5: 43-44 & 46-48 & 66)>>> See Annexure-1

Believe in the Day of Judgement (Qiyamat):

(Fatihah-1: 04) (Baqarah-2: 04): (Mumin-40: 16-18)>>> See Annexure-1

Believe in Kabbah (Makkah) as Qiblah (the direction of prayers):

(Imran-3: 96): (Baqarah-2: 143 & 144 & 149)>>> See Annexure-1

A.1 Additional Foundations of Islam (Shia Fiqh)

Believe in Imamat: (Continuation of Muhammad’s Guardianship (as delegated by Allah) through the twelve Imams of Ahlul Bayt in an unbroken chain culminating in twelfth Imam (Muhammad al-Mahdi: The living Imam): Imam Mehdi is the living Imam under Allah’s protection behind the veil. Ref:
(Bani Israil-17: 71): (Maidah-5: 67 & 03&07): (Ahzab-33: 33): (Shura-42: 23): (Nur-24: 55): (Zukhruf-43: 61) (Inshirah-94: 7&8):>>> See Annexure-1

B. Obligations in Islam

Five daily prayers (Salat):

(Baqarah-2: 03 & 43): (Maidah-5: 55)>>> See Annexure-2

Fasting in Ramadhan (30 days Fasting):

(Baqarah-2: 183-185)>>> See Annexure-2

3 Obligatory Charity (Zakat): 2.5% of the yearly savings:

(Baqarah-2; 03 & 43&110): (Maidah-5: 55)>>> See Annexure-2

Note: A word of caution!

  • Including the taxes (Income tax and other tax levies imposed by various governments) towards the settlement of Zakat is not recommended.
  • It is prudent to pay Zakat on total savings (inclusive of everything) instead of taking many items as not applicable or exempt. An excess payment, if any, shall never go waste, as against shortfalls to which every individual remains accountable. It must be remembered that payment of Zakat has been highlighted in the Holy Quran more than any other form of charity and there is no getting away from it.

Pilgrimage to (Kabbah):

Located in the city of Makka, Saudi Arabia: Once in the lifetime: (Imran-3: 97: Baqarah-2: 196)>>>See Annexure-2

Jehad: Defensive fighting in the way of Allah:

The declaration of Jehad permissible only by the authorized individual and/or group in line with Quranic injunctions: (Baqarah-2: 190):(Nisa-4: 90-91): (Bara’at-9: 88): (Mumtahinah-60: 08)>>> See Annexure-2

B.1 Additional Obligations in Islam (Shia Fiqah):

E.6 Khoms (Additional Charity):

20% on increase in assets (One-time payment only): Half of the Khoms (Sehme-Imam) and the other half (Sehme Saddat): (Anfal-8: 41)>>> See Annexure-2

Note: For computation, yearly basis, or any other milestone, whichever is convenient, may be chosen.

E.7 Amar Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anil Munkar:

(Enjoin Piety and Discard Evil): Implement and promote goodness in any or all forms and abstain from all evil acts: (Imran-3: 104)>>> See Annexure-2

(a):Tabarra: (Disliking any or all things not liked by Allah):

(Baqarah-2: 190): (Imran-3: 61): (Imran-3: 87): (Nisa-4: 46): (Nisa-4: 52): (Nisa-4: 107): (Nisa-4: 117&118):(Maidah-5: 60):(Maidah-5: 64&78&87): (Anam-6: 142): (Araf-7: 31&55): Nahl-16: 23): (Ahzab-33: 57) and:

(b): Tawwalla: (loving everything loved by Allah):

(Shura;42: 23): (Baqarah-2: 195): (Imran-3: 146): (Imran-3: 159):(Maidah-5: 13):(Maidah-5: 42 & 93):(Hujurat-49: 09): (Mumtahinah-60: 08): (Saff-61: 04)>>> See Annexure-2

Annexure-1: Foundations of Islam (References):

C. References: Quranic Ayaats (C) and Narratives (D)

C.1 Believe in Allah Unseen (Ghaib):

” Who believe in unseen”

(Baqarah-2: 03)

” Allah will not acquaint you with the unseen>>>”

(Imran-3: 179)

” And with Him are the keys of (treasures) of the unseen. None but He knows them>>>”

(Anam-6: 59)

” Surely they disbelieve who say: Allah is the third of the three: Because there is no god save the one God”

(Maidah-5: 73)

” Say: He is Allah the one”


” Allah: There is no god save He”

(Baqarah-2: 55)

” Vision perceives Him not but He perceives (all) visions”

(Anam-6: 104)

” Allah is only one God”

(Nisa-4: 171)

” He knows the treachery of the eye, and what the breasts conceal”

(Mumin-40: 19)

C.2 Allah’s Absolute Justice (Adl):

” Verily, Allah does not do injustice (even) to the weight of of an atom”

(Nisa-4: 40)

” Perfect is the word of your Lord in truth and justice”

(Anam-6: 116)

C.3 Prophet-hood (Nabuwat):

“Say (O Muhammad): We believe in Allah, and what has been sent to Ibrahim, and Ismail, and Ishaq and Yaqub, and the tribes, and what was given to Musa and Isa, and the prophets from their Lord, we make no difference between any of them, and we have surrendered to Him”

(Imran-3: 84)

“He it is who raised among the ummies (illiterates) a messenger from amongst them”

(Jumuah-62: 02)

” And those who believe and do good and believe in what has been sent down to Muhammad – it is the truth from their Lord – He will remove from them their evils and improve their state”

(Muhammad-47: 02)

” Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but a messenger of Allah, and the seal of the prophets (last of the prophets). Allah is the knower of all things”

(Ahzab-33; 40)

” Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”

(Fath-48: 29)

C.4 Allah’s Books:

“And believe in that which has been revealed to you (O Muhammad), and that which was revealed to (other messengers) before you”

(Baqarah-2: 04)

” And He will teach him the Book and the wisdom, and Tawrat and Injil”

(Imran-3: 48)

Context is Maryam’s dialogue with the angel who informed her that Allah has decreed that she shall give birth to Isa being a virgin.

” O People of the book! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim, when the Tawrat and Injil were not sent down till after him? Do you not then understand?

(Imran-3: 65)

” But how shall they make you a judge, when the Tawrat is with them which contains the (clear) judgment of Allah? Yet they turn away (even) after that, and such people are not believers

(Maidah-5: 43)

” Verily We sent down the Tawrat which contains guidance and light”

(Maidah-5: 44)

” And We caused Isa, son of Maryam, to follow in their footsteps, confirming the Tawart which had been (sent down) before him”

(Maidah-5: 46)

” And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the book (the Quran) with truth, confirming what is before it of the book, and a guardian over it”

(Maidah-5: 48)

” And if they (the Jews and Christians) had followed (the teachings of) the Tawrat and the Injil, and that which was sent down to them from their Lord (the Quran) they would certainly have been nourished from above and from beneath their feet. Among them are the people who are moderate, but evil is what most of them do”

(Maidah-5: 66)

” And when the Quran is recited listen to it with (full) attention, that you may be blessed with mercy”

(Araf-7: 204)

” Verily, this Quran guides to that which is the most upright, and announces glad tidings to the believers who do good deeds that they shall have a great reward”:

(Bani Israil-17: 09)

” That, verily, it is an honourable Quran”: (Waqiah-56: 77): ” In a book hidden”: (Waqiah-56: 78): ” Which none can touch save the (thoroughly) purified”

(Waqiah-56: 79)

The thoroughly purified are none other than Ahlul Bayt inclusive their twelve Imam’s in an unbroken chain:


” Verily, Allah intends but to keep off from you (every kind of) uncleanness, O you people of the house (Ahlul Bayt), and purify you (with) a thorough purification”

(Ahzab-33: 33)
  1. It literally spells out that none other than thoroughly purified could carry the true understanding of the Quran.
  2. Who are Ahlul Bayt? They are those whom holy Prophet took for Mubahiala with Christians as described below:

D.1 Mubahila:

(i) MUBAHILA with Christians refers to well-known event mentioned in every book of history, traditions, and tafsir written by Muslim Scholars.
An invitation was sent to Christians of Najran, a town of Yemen, in the 9th year of Hijra by the Holy Prophet to accept Islam. A deputation of 60 scholars came to discuss the matter with the Holy Prophet. Abdul Masih the chief monk, asked the Holy Prophet as to who was the father of Isa, thinking that the Holy Prophet would accept God as the father of Isa. The Verse (Imran-3: 59) of the surah was revealed and was presented as a reply:

(ii) Likeness of Isa:

“Verily the likeness of Isa with Allah is as was likeness of Adam; He created him out of dust, then He said to him ‘BE’ and he was”

(Imran-3: 59)

” (This is ) the truth from your Lord, therefore do not be of those who doubt it”

(Imran-3: 60)

(iii) The Christians were not willing to listen to reason. Then the Verse (Imran-3: 61) was revealed to call them to a spiritual contest (Mubahila) by invoking the curse of Allah on the liars.

“And say to him, who disputes with you therein after the knowledge has come to you (O Muhammad): Come let us summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, and then humbly pray and invoke the curse of Allah on the liars”

(Imran-3: 61)

(iv) The Christians agreed to this contest.

(v) Early next morning, the 24th of the month of Dhilhijjah, the Holy Prophet sent Salman to the selected site, outside the city area, to set up a shelter for those whom he would take with him, as his son, women, and selves.

(vi) A large number of companions in the masjid making themselves available for the selection, and a huge crowd in waiting saw the Christians with their selected men, women, and children ready for the contest.

(vii) At the appointed time everyone saw the Holy Prophet coming in, Imam Hussain in his arms, Imam Hasan holding his index finger, walking beside him, Bibi Fatima Zahra close to his heels, and Imam Ali just behind.

(viii) The Holy Prophet raised his hands to heaven and said: ‘O my Lord! These are the people of my house’.

(ix) The chief monk looked up and down at the faces of the Pure Five (Panjatan Pak), from whom emanated a radiant and brilliant glow; and this sight filled him with awe and anguish. He cried out aloud:

(x) ‘By Jesus! I see the faces that if they turn upward to the heavens and pray, the mountains shall move. Believers in Jesus of Nazareth, I tell you the truth. Should you fail to come to some agreement with Muhammad, he, along with the godly souls with him, shall wipe out your existence forever, should they invoke the curse of God on you’.

(xi) The Christians saw the wisdom of their chief and readily agreed to arrive at a settlement. As there is no compulsion in religion (Baqarah-2: 256), the Holy Prophet gave them complete freedom to practice their faith. He also agreed to protect their lives and possessions; and for this service, the Christians consented to pay a nominal fee (Jizya).

C.5 Believe in the Day of Judgement (Qiyamat):

” Master of the day of judgment”

(Fatihah-1: 04)

” And are sure of hereafter”

(Baqarah-2: 04)

“And the day when they shall come out (of the graves), with nothing of them hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this day? (It is) Allah’s, the one, the omnipotent”

(Mumin-40: 16)

” Each soul shall be recompensed that day for what it had earned. There shall be no injustice on that day. Verily Allah is swift at reckoning”

(Mumin 40: 17)

” Warn them of the approaching day when hearts will jump to the throats to choke (them). The unjust shall not have any friend nor an intercessor who will be listened to”

(Mumin-40: 18)

C.6 Believe in Kabbah (Makkah) as Qiblah (the direction of prayers):

” And We did not fix the Qiblah which you faced except to distinguish he who follows the messenger from he who turns back on his heels>>>”

(Baqarah-2: 143)

It was only Ali Ibna Abu Talib who followed the messenger.

” Verily We see turning your face to heaven, so We shall turn you to a qiblah which you will like>>>”

(Baqarah-2: 144)

” And from whatever place you go forth, turn your face toward the sacred masjid>>>”

(Baqarah-2: 149)

” Verily, the first house set for mankind is at Bakka (Makka), blessed, and a guidance to the worlds”

(Imran-3: 96)

Imamat (Shia Fiqh):

D.2 The Concept and an Obligation imposed by Allah Himself:

(i) Imamat is a leadership function that may or may not run in parallel to Nabuwat. For instance, Ibrahim was a Prophet and subsequently assigned the additional responsibility of being an Imam also.
(ii) The appointment of an Imam is by Allah alone and has not been delegated by Him to anyone.
(iii) The holy Prophet and the twelve Imams of the Ahlul Bayt in an unbroken chain are infallible (Masoom)
(iv) Imamat is hereditary requiring holy lineage and genetic purity.
(v) Imamat carries with it absolute knowledge (Hikmah: Divine Guidance) passed on by Allah Himself directly or through the holy Prophet.
(vi) It is necessary for an Imam to declare his (Imamat) and continue discharging his functions irrespective of holding kingdom or authority or not: there being no compulsion in Islam (Baqarah-2: 256).
(vii) It is necessary that faithfuls should be aware of the existence of the Imam at all times.
(viii) Worldly kingdom and authority is not mandatory for an Imam to discharge his functions; but if faithfuls choose him to do so; it becomes an ideal solution, conforming to Allah’s command in its entirety
(ix) Allah has declared in emphatic terms that leadership (Imamat) shall not be bestowed on unjust (Zalimeen).

D.3 The commencement of Imamat (Ghadir Khum):

The narrative in the sequential format along with references is given below:

(i) Allah’s command to Holy Prophet to deliver the important message without fail:

” (O Muhammad) Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you do not do it, then, (it will be as if) you have not delivered His message (at all); and surely Allah will protect you from (the mischief) of men; verily, Allah does not guide a disbelieving people”

(Maidah-5: 67)

(ii) While returning from his last Hajj on way back to Madina, the holy Prophet received Allah’s command identified above. Subsequently, after he delivered a long sermon recalling all his services, he raised Ali’s hand and made the following announcement seeking confirmation of the same in the form of a covenant with Allah (Ghadir Khum covenant)
(iii) ‘Allah is your Guardian and then I am your Guardian and thereafter Ali is your Guardian (Mun Kunto Maula fa Haza Ali Un Maula)’
(iv) The entire crowd in one single voice confirmed the declaration and approved the covenant at Ghadir. Participants profusely congratulated (Ali Ibna Abu Talib) on his appointment as Maula of the faithfuls.
(v) After delivery of the message (Maidah-5: 67); Allah’s declaration below was revealed: (Maidah-5: 03)

” This day, those who disbelieve have despaired of your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me”

” This day I have perfected for you your religion, and completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam (as your) religion”

(Maidah-5: 03)

(v) Acknowledgment of the declaration at Ghadir Khum was subsequently revealed as below: (Maidah-5: 07)

” And remember the bounties of Allah on you, and His covenant by which He has bound you when you said: We have heard (your commandment) and we have obeyed (it sincerely): and fear Allah; verily, Allah knows whatever is (hidden) inyour breasts (hearts)”

(Maidah-5: 07)

(vi) The completion of holy Prophet’s mission and his upcoming return to Allah was further elaborated as below:

” So when you have completed (the duties of your ministry), then establish (your successor)”

” And return to your Lord with fervour”

(Inshirah-94: 07 – 08)

D.4 Imamat Continuation:

” Say (O Muhammad): I do not ask of you any recompense for it (the toils of prophethood) save the love of (my) relatives>>>”

(Shura-42: 23)

D.5 The Culmination in Twelfth Imam:

The infallible twelve Imams of Ahlul Bayt in unbroken chain represented by the twelfth living Imam (Muhammad Mehdi) is under Allah’s protection behind veil. The Quranic prediction in this regard follows:

” Allah has promised to appoint those of you who believe and do good deeds, successors in the earth, as He had appointed those before them, and He shall certainly establish their religion (Islam) which He has chosen for them, He will give them in exchange security after fear. They shall worship Me and not associate anyone with Me; and whosoever disbelieves after this, then they are the wicked transgressors”

(Nur-24: 55)

” Verily he shall be the sign (of the approach) of the hour ( of reckoning). So have no doubt about it, and follow Me. This is the right path”

(Zukhruf-43: 61)

C.7 Quranic Verse outlining Imams and Imamat:

” And We made them leaders (Imams) to guide (the people) by Our command>>>”

(Anbiya-21: 73)

Note: Context: Prophets Ishaq and Yaqub

” And (remember) when his Lord tried Ibrahim with a certain word and he fulfilled them. He (Allah) said: Verily, I make you Leader (Imam) for mankind. He (Ibrahim) said: And my offspring? He (Allah) said: My covenant will not include the unjust (Zalimeen)”

(Baqarah-2; 124)

” And We made among leaders (Imams) to guide (people) by our command as they were steadfast, and they were convinced of Our signs”

(Sajdah-32: 24)

Note: Context: Musa and Haroon

” We wished to favor those who were weak in the land, and make them Imams (leaders in faith) and make them hiers”

(Qasas-28: 05)

” And those who say: O Our Lord! Grant us out of our wives and our offspring that which cheers our eyes, and make us leaders (Imams) of those who safeguard themselves against evil”

(Furqan-25: 74)

” (Remember) the day when We will summon every people with their leader (Imam)>>>”

(Bani Israil-17: 71)

” But whosoever is blind in this (life), he shall (also) be blind in the hereafter, and far stray from the (right) way

(Bani Israil-17: 72)


(i) Allah’s Warning concerning non-compliance (Bani-Israil-17: 72)

Annexure-2: Obligations in Islam (References)

References: Quranic Ayaats (E) and Narratives (F)

E.1 Prayers (Salat):

” Who believe in the unseen and establish prayers>>>”

(Baqarah-2: 03)

” Establish prayer, and give the poor tax (Zakat) and bow down with (those) who bow”

(Baqarah-2: 43)

” Verily, your guardian is Allah and His messenger (Muhammad) and those who believe and establish prayer, and give poor rate (Zakat) while they are (in the state of ruku) bowing down”

(Maidah-5: 55)

(i) The incidence referred to is about an action on part of Ali Ibna Abu Talib.

E.2 Fasting (Ramadhan):

” O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may safeguard yourself with full awareness of divine laws”

(Baqarah-2: 183)

“(It is) for a fixed number of days, but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (the same) number of other days, and those who find it hard to do so should affect a redemption by feeding a poor man; and whosoever of his own accord, does good, it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you, if you know”

(Baqarah-2: 184)

” The month of Ramadhan is that in which Quran was sent down, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion for right and wrong, so whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast in it, and whoever is sick, or on a journey (he shall fast) the same number of other days. Allah desires ease for you. He does not desire hardship for you, and that you should complete the prescribed number (of days),and that you should glorify Allah for His having guided you, and so that you may give thanks”

(Baqarah-2: 185)
Note: Fasting Exemptions:

(i) According to ‘Shia fiqh’ (and those who find it hard to do so: (Baqarah-2: 184) has not been abrogated by (Baqarah-2: 185)
(ii) On the authority of Imam Jafer Sadiq: “and those who find it hard to do so”: (Baqarah-2: 184) applies to those who are able to fast but due to some weakness it is very difficult for them to do so.

E.3 Obligatory Charity (Zakat):

” Establish prayer, and give the poor tax (Zakat) and bow down with (those) who bow”

(Baqarah-2: 43)

” And establish the prayer and pay the poor-tax and whatever good you send ahead of yourself , you shall find with Allah; verily Allah sees what you do”

(Baqarah-2: 110)
E.4 Pilgrimage to (Kabbah):

” Complete the hajj and the umrah for the sake of Allah>>>”

(Baqarah-2: 196)

” In it are clear signs; the place where Ibrahim stood up (to pray); and whoever enters it is safe; and pilgrimage to the house is incumbent upon mankind (purely) for Allah; (it is) for those who can afford to go there. And whoever disbelieves, then verily, Allah (the self-subsisting) is independent of the worlds”

(Imran-3: 97)
E.5 Jehad: Fighting in the Way of Allah:

” And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not be the aggressor; (for) verily Allah does not love aggressors”

(Baqarah-2: 190)

” Except those who join a people between whom and you there is a covenant (of peace), or those who come to you with hearts restraining them
from fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had pleased, He would surely have given them power over you, and they would have fought you; therefore if they withdraw from you and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then Allah has made no way for you (to fight) against them”

(Nisa-4: 90)

” Shortly you will also find others who desire security from you and security from their own people; every time they return to mischief, they fall headlong into it; therefore if they do not withdraw from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them; and these are the people against whom We have given you a clear authority”

(Nisa-4: 91)

” But the messenger and those who believe with him strive hard (fight) with their wealth and their lives; for them are (all) good things, and these are they who will be successful”

(Bara’at-9: 88)

” Allah does not forbid you from being kind and acting justly towards those who did not fight over (your) religion with you, nor drive you out of your homes. Verily Allah loves those who are just”

(Mumtahinah-60: 08)

B.1 Additional Obligations in Islam (Shia Fiqh)

Khoms (Shia Fiqh)

” And know you (O believers) that whatever you acquire, a fifth of it is for Allah, and for (His) messenger, and for his near relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and if you believe in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our servant (Muhammad) on the day of distinction, the day when the two hosts met. Verily Allah has power over all things”

(Anfal-8: 41)
Amar Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anil Munkar:

” And that there should be among you a group who call (mankind) to virtue and enjoin good and forbid evil; and these are they who shall be successful”:

(Imran-3: 104)
7.F What is Amr Bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar?
  1. It is in fact the (rai·son d’être) of the Muslim Ummah: which means: Either you do it and give meaning to your existence, or you don’t care about it and get lost!
  2. Al Qurtubi said: “You are the best of people” (imran-3: 110) only if you “enjoin good and forbid evil”: (Imran-3: 110)
  3. Enjoining good and forbidding evil is the principal characteristic of a Muslim.
  4. A believer in Islam, male and female, should not only possess this character but also mutually cooperate in the promotion of good and the prohibition of evil. No gender-based distinction Islam.

“The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those – Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise”

(Bara’at-9: 71)

“The hypocrite men and hypocrite women are of one another. They enjoin what is wrong and forbid what is right and close their hands. They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them [accordingly]. Indeed, the hypocrites – it is they who are defiantly disobedient”.

(Bara’at-9: 67)


  1. Believing men and women enjoin good and forbid evil
  2. Hypocrites, men, and women, do the opposite. They enjoin what is wrong and forbid what is right.
  3. No gender bias in Islam
  4. On the authority of the Holy Prophet: ‘Whoever amongst you sees an evil, he must change it with his hand; if he is unable to do so, then with his tongue; and if he is unable to do so, then with his heart; and that is the weakest form of Faith’.
  5. Amr Bil Ma’roof and Nahi ‘anil Munkar is a Fard Kifaayah, collective responsibility of the Muslim Ummah. An-Nawawee said: The Prophet’s saying ‘must change it’ indicates that practicing it is an obligation, by the consensus of the Ummah’.
  6. He also said: ‘Enjoining good and forbidding evil’ is an obligation of collective responsibility, Fard Kifaayah. Once it is undertaken by a number of people the rest are absolved of it. However, if neglected by everyone, then all those who are capable of discharging it, without legal excuse or fear, are considered sinful. However, for a Muslim at the helm of affairs or in authority, this will become his individual responsibility, Fard Al Ayn.
  7. If you do not carry out your responsibility of Amr Bil Ma’roof and Nahi ‘anil Munkar, then your du’aas go unanswered!

On the authority of the holy Prophet:

‘By Him in Whose Hand my life is, you either enjoin good and forbid evil, or Allah will certainly soon send His punishment to you. Then you will make supplication and it will not be accepted’.

E.8 (a):Tabarra: (Disliking any or all things not liked by Allah):

” And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but do not be the aggressor; (for) verily Allah does not love aggressors

(Baqarah-2: 190)

” And then let us humbly pray and invoke the curse of Allah on liars”

(Imran-3: 61)

” These! Their recompense that upon them will rest curse of Allah and of angels and of mankind, altogether”

(Imran-3: 87)

” But Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they do not believe save a few”

(Nisa-4: 46)

” Those are they whom Allah has cursed; and he whom Allah curses, for him you shall not find any helper”

(Nisa-4: 52)

” And do not plead on behalf of those who deceive their own souls; verily Allah does not love one who is treacherous, sinful


” And they invoke besides Him only female deities; and they invoke none else than Shaytan, the persistent rebel”

Whom Allah has cursed>>>”

(Nisa-4: 117 – 118)

” Allah does not love the utterances of evil in (public) speech, except by one who has been wronged; and Allah is ever-hearer, knower”

(Nisa-4: 148)

” Say (O Muhammad): Shall I inform you of (some who are) worse than this for retribution with Allah? (Worse is he) whom Allah has cursed, and (he) on whom His wrath has fallen>>>”

(Maidah-5: 60)

” And Allah does not love mischief-makers”

(Maidah-5: 64)

Cursed were those amongst the children of Israil who did not believe by the tongue of Dawud and Isa, son of Maryam. That is because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limits

(Maida-5: 78)

” O you who believe! do not forbid the good things that Allah has made lawful for you; and do not transgress the limits; verily, Allah does not love the transgressors”:

(Maidah-5: 87)

” Verily He does not love those who are extravagant

(Anam-6: 142)

” Verily He does not love the prodigals

(Araf-7: 31)

” Call your Lord humbly and in secret. Verily Allah does not love the transgressors

(Araf-7: 55)

” Surely Allah knows what they hide and what they disclose. Verily He does not love the arrogant

(Nahl-16: 23)

” Verily those who annoy Allah and His messenger (Muhammad), Allah has cursed them in this world and the hereafter and has prepared for them a disgraceful chastisement”

(Ahzab-33: 57)
F.8 (a) Understanding Tabarra?

(i) An overwhelming dislike for any and all acts disliked by Allah; such as those identified in the Quranic verses above (and others appearing elsewhere in Quran) is commonly defined as Tabarra: which includes Allah’s curses indicated above and others appearing elsewhere in Allah’s book. It goes without saying, that reciting these verses, itself constitutes conforming to Allah’s Way (Sunnat): which has been practiced all along by all Muslims alike universally: past and present: without any hesitation and or reluctance. Tabarra, therefore, constitutes an integral part of Allah’s Way (Sunnat)

E.8 (b):Tawwalla:

(Loving Everything Allah Loves) (Shura;42: 23): (Baqarah-2: 195): (Imran-3: 146): (Imran-3: 159):(Maidah-5: 13):(Maidah-5: 42&93):(Hujurat-49: 09): (Mumtahinah-60: 08): (Saff-61: 04)

” Say (O Muhammad): I do not ask of you any recompense for it (the toils of prophethood) save the love of (my) relatives>>>”

(Shura-42: 23)

” And Allah loves the steadfast”

(Imran-3: 146)

” Thus it is a mercy of Allah that you are lenient to them; if you had been severe and hard-hearted, they would surely have dispersed from around you. So forgive them and seek pardon for them, and take their counsel in the (conduct of) affairs, but when you are resolved, then put your trust in Allah, for Allah loves those who put their trust in (Him)”


Note: Context Battle of Uhad.

” Verily Allah loves the beneficent”

(Maidah-5: 13)

Allah loves those who are equitable

(Maidah-5: 42)

” And do good, and Allah loves those who do good

(Maidah-5: 93)

” Verily Allah loves those who are just

(Hujurat-49: 09)

” Allah does not forbid you from being kind and acting justly towards those who did not fight over (your) religion with you, nor drive you out of your homes. Verily Allah loves those who are just

(Mumtahinah-60: 08)

” Verily Allah loves those who fight in His cause in ranks as though they were an unbreakable concrete wall”

(Saff-61: 04)

F.8 (b) Understanding Tawwalla?

(i) Easiest way to love Allah is loving all that is loved by Allah. An attempt has been made to identify such entities by way of searching through Allah’s book (Quran). Some of the results of such searches are identified above and are self-explanatory.
The highlight of the same is repeated below once again:

” Say (O Muhammad): I do not ask of you any recompense for it (the toils of prophethood) save the love of (my) relatives>>>”

Shura-42: 23)