Highlighted Quranic Listing-4

Highlighted Quranic listing of the fourth Separa (Lan Tanalu) is here. An attempt has been made to simplify the tracking of the desired information. At the outset, it is necessary to acknowledge innumerable sources used in the compilation of this effort. No attempt has been made to list the references individually; but sincere thanks are due to all, individually and collectively.

Road Map:

  1. The list of (Flags) below is a subject-wise identification
  2. Each (Flag) refers to the corresponding (verse or verses) and identifies (explanatory note) if any
  3. Quranic verses of this (Separa) are listed and marked in a conventional way
  4. For example (Nisa-4: 05) refers to the fifth verse of Surah (An Nisa) which is the fourth Surah of the Holy Quran
  5. Each verse commences and ends marked as (> “—–“: (number of the verse)
  6. >>> ” denotes the subject of the verse is continuing into the next verse
  7. All notes are numbered in parenthesis as ( i), (ii) and so on
  8. All a reader needs to do is review the listed (Flags), choose the desired subject and proceed to the indicated (Ayat)
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Separa 04: Lan Tanalu
Surah Ali’Imran (92-200)
Surah An Nisa (01-23)


Surah Ali’Imran-3


” You shall not attain the righteousness until you spend (in the way of Allah) of what you love, and whatsoever you spend, verily Allah knows it”: (92)

” All food was allowed to the children of Israil save what Israil (Yaqub) had forbidden unto himself before the Tawrat was sent down. Say (O Muhammad): Bring you then the Tawrat and read it, if you are truthful”: (93)

Flag 1: Denial of Jewish Claim concerning Food Prohibition: (Imran-3: 93)


(i) Jews accused Muslims of taking certain food which had been unlawful since the time of Ibrahim. The Quran denies the charge by a reference to their own scripture. The original law of Musa contained the same prohibitions and permissions, concerning eatables, prescribed in Islam, but Jews had corrupted the book over the years.

” Then whoever fabricates a lie after this against Allah (these) are the unjust”: (94)

” Say (O Muhammad): Allah has spoken the truth, so follow the creed (Islam) of Ibrahim, the upright; and he was not of the polytheists”: (95)

Flag 2: Creed of Ibrahim: (Imran-3: 95)


(i) The faith (Creed) of Ibrahim was no other than Islam. He was the fountainhead of the true Islamic faith with Allah’s absolute unity

” Verily, the first house set for mankind is at Bakka (Makka), blessed and a guidance to the worlds”: (96)

Flag 3: (Kabbah): (Imran-3: 96)


(i) The great antiquity of (Kabah) is undisputed even before Ibrahim

(ii) On the authority of Ahlul Bayt: The valley of Makka was the first part of the earth which emerged above the surface of the water and cooled down when the heavens and the earth (the integrated mass) were split by Allah’s command (Anbiya-30: 31)

(iii) Ancient historical references concerning (Kabbah) are traceable to people of Semitic origin and inhabitants of India of the pre-Sanskrit era.

” In it are the clear signs; the place where Ibrahim stood up (to pray); and whoever enters it is safe; and the pilgrimage to the house is incumbent upon mankind (purely) for Allah; (it is) for those who can afford to go there. And whoever disbelieves, then verily, Allah (the self-subsisting) is independent of the worlds”: (97)

Flag 4: Muqam-o-Ibrahim: (Imran-3: 97)


(i) The station or the standing place of Ibrahim, the model believer in the unity of Allah, has the following points of significance:

(ii) Permanent center for all monotheist faiths

(iii) Sacred sanctuary

” Say (O Muhammad): O people of the book! Why do you disbelieve in the signs of Allah, while Allah is witness of what you do”? (98)

” Say (O Muhammad): O people of the book! Why do you keep back the believers from the path of Allah, seeking to make it crooked, when you are witnesses (of its truth? And Allah is not heedless of what you do”: (99)

O you who believe! If you obey a (certain) group among those who have been given the book, they will turn you into disbelievers after you believe”: (100)

” How can you disbelieve when Allah’s signs are recited to you, and His messenger (Muhammad) is in your amidst? And whoever holds fast to Allah is surely guided to the right path”: (101)

Flag 5: Do you not understand! O people of the book? (Imran-3: 98-101)

” O you who believe! Safeguard yourself with full awareness of Allah’s laws with reverence due to Him, and do not die but as those who have surrendered to Him”: (102)

Flag 6: Die as a Muslim only (Imran-3: 102)


(i) It is the duty of every creature to be aware of the creator’s will and command and obey Him willingly or unwillingly

” And hold fast, all of you together, to the chord of Allah, and do not become disunited. And remember Allah’s bounty bestowed upon when you were enemies (of each other), and He united your hearts together so that you become brothers by His grace; and (while) you were at the brink of the pit of the fire, He delivered you therefrom. This Allah clearly explains His signs to you, so that haply you may be guided” : (103)

Flag 7: Allah’s Chord and Command for ‘Unity’: (Imran-3: 103)


(i) None other than Ahlul Bayt (with an unbroken chain of their twelve Imams) are clear indicators to represent Allah’s chord.

(ii) The command is no different than holding to (Urwatil Wuthqa: Baqarah-2: 256).

(iii) (Hadith al Thaqalayn) needs to be referred for further elaboration in this regard.

” And that there should be among you a group who call (mankind) to virtue and enjoin good and forbid evil; and these are they who shall be successful”: (104)

Flag 8: Call to Enjoin Good and Forbid Evil (Amr Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anal Munkar): (Imran-3: 104)


(i) Further references on this subject: (Imran-3:110 & Tawbah-9: 71 & 67)

Flag 9: What is Amr Bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar? (Imran-3: 104)

Additional Note:

(i) It is in fact the rai·son d’être of the Muslim Ummah: Either you do it and give meaning to your existence, or you don’t care about it and get lost!

(ii) Al Qurtubi said, “You are the best of peoples only if you enjoin good and forbid evil.

(iii) Enjoining good and forbidding evil is the principal characteristic of a Muslim.

(iv) A believer in Islam, male and female, should not only possess this character but also mutually cooperate in the promotion of good and the prohibition of evil. There is no gender bias in Islam


“ The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those – Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise”: (Tawbah 9:71)

(v) Hypocrites, men and women, do the opposite. They enjoin what is wrong and forbid what is right.


“ The hypocrite men and hypocrite women are of one another. They enjoin what is wrong and forbid what is right and close their hands. They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them [accordingly]. Indeed, the hypocrites – it is they who are the defiantly disobedient”: (Tawbah 9:67)

(vi) On the authority of the Holy Prophet: Whoever amongst you sees an evil, he must change it with his hand; if he is unable to do so, then with his tongue; and if he is unable to do so, then with his heart; and that is the weakest form of faith.

(vii) Amr bil Ma’roof and Nahi ‘anil Munkar is a Fard Kifaayah, collective responsibility of the Muslim Ummah.

An-Nawawee said, “The Prophet’s saying ‘must change it’ indicates that practicing it is an obligation, by the consensus of the Ummah. He also said: Enjoining good and forbidding evil is an obligation of collective responsibility, Fard Kifaayah. Once it is undertaken by a number of people the rest are absolved of it. However, if neglected by everyone, then all those who are capable of discharging it, without legal excuse or fear, are considered sinful.

(viii) However, for a Muslim at the helm of affairs or in authority, this will become his individual responsibility, Fard Al Ayn.

(ix)) If you do not carry out your responsibility of Amr bil Ma’roof and Nahi ‘anil Munkar, then your du’aas go unanswered!

(x) On the authority of the holy Prophet: By Him in Whose Hand my life is, you either enjoin good and forbid evil, or Allah will certainly soon send His punishment to you. Then you will make supplication and it will not be accepted.

” And do not be like those who become disunited, and disagreed (among themselves) after clear evidence had come to them; and these! for them is a great torment”: (105)

” On the day when (some) faces will be bright and (some) faces will be black, and as for those whose faces shall turn black (it will be said to them): Did you disbelieve after the (profession of) belief? Taste, then, the torment of what you were disbelieving”: (106)

” And as for those whose faces shall become bright, they shall be in the mercy of Allah; they shall abide therein”: (107)

” These are the signs of Allah. We recite them to you in truth; and Allah does not intend injustice to mankind”: (108)

” To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth; and to Allah all matters shall return”: (109)

Flag 10: Black & Bright faces on the ‘Day of Judgement’: (Imran-3: 105-109)

” You are the best group that has been brought forth for mankind; you enjoin goodness and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah. And if the people of the book had believed it would surely have been better for them. (Some) of them are believers, and most of them are perverse”: (110)

Flag 11: The best Group (Khaira Ummatin): (Imran-3: 110)


(i) In verses (Imran-3: 104 &113 & Baqarah-2:128 &143) Ummat stands for an Imam, who exercises authority and not for mamun on whom authority is exercised upon
(ii) Human choice and discretion has no place:


” And your Lord creates what He wills, and also chooses. They (the created beings) have never any choice

(Qasas-28: 68)

(iii) Holy Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt (Inclusive of the unbroken chain of their twelve Imams) are the only groups who have the competence, efficiency, and authority to enjoin good and forbid evil in line with verses (Imran-3:104 and 110). This is the ‘Best Group‘ or the ‘Select Group’ referred to above (Imran-3:110)

(iv) Those who have the demonstrated knowledge, wisdom and ability to work on the lines of the “Select Group’ in letter and spirit and a proven record may be able to work as their nominated representatives on an interim basis and as long as they are not diverting from the path for the ‘Best Group‘: not the despots, tyrants, and usurpers failing to demonstrate any of the essential characteristics of the ‘Select Group’, nor the individuals, dictators, etc bearing characteristics in complete contrast with the requirements.

(v) Therefore (waltakun minkum: Imran-3:104) gives permission to Muslims to elect, appoint or nominate a person or a group of persons to guide and lead. The verse (Imran-3:104) points out to the necessity of such an institution, just as the necessity of prophets.

” They shall not harm you save some slight injury; and if they fight against you, they shall turn their backs on you; then they shall not be helped”: (111)

” Ignominy is struck upon them wherever they are found, except in a covenant with Allah and a covenant with men; and they have drawn upon themselves wrath from Allah. Besides, humiliation is stamped upon them; this (is) because they used to disbelieve in the signs of Allah, and slew the prophets unjustly; this (is) because they disbelieved and used to transgress”: (112)

” All of them are not alike. Of the people of the book there is a group (so) upright (in faith) that they recite the signs of Allah in all the hours of the night, and prostrate themselves in adoration”: (113)

” They believe in Allah and the last day, enjoin goodness and forbid evil, and vie one another in good deeds, and these are of the righteous”: (114)

” And whatever good they do, they shall not be denied (the recompense thereof); and Allah knows those who safeguard themselves with full awareness of divine laws”: (115)

Flag 12: Recompense for ‘Doing Good’ to any or all ‘Believers’ alike: (Imran-3: 111-115)

” Indeed the possessions and children of those who disbelieve shall not avail them anything against Allah; they shall be the inmates of the fire; they shall abide therein”: (116)

” The likeness of what they spend in this life of the world is as a likeness of a biting, icy wind which smites the tilth of a people, who have wronged themselves, and destroys it. Allah did not do injustice to them, but it was they who were doing injustice to themselves”: (117)

” O you who believe! Do not take for intimates others than your own (fellow-believers), they will not fail to corrupt you, they wish what distresses you (the most). Their spite has already shown itself by their mouths, but that is concealed in their breasts is worse. Indeed We have made signs clear to you, if you will understand”: (118)

” Behold! You are those who love them but they do not love you, though you believe in the book; all of it. When they meet you, they say: We believe: but when they go apart they bite their fingers tips at you in rage. Say (O Muhammad) Die in your rage! Verily Allah knows well whatever is in the breasts”: (119)

” If there happens to you any good, it grieves them, and if ill afflicts you, they rejoice thereat. But if you are patient and safeguard yourself with full awareness of divine laws, their guilt shall not harm you; for, verily, Allah encompasses whatever they do”: (120)

Flag 13: Recognizing Your Friends & Foes? (Imran-3: 116-120)

” And (remember) when you set forth from your household at early dawn so that you could prepare for the disbelievers the encampment for the battle; and Allah is hearer, knower”: (121)

” (Remember) when two groups of you had a (passing) thought to withdraw (from the battle-field); and Allah was the guardian of both; In Allah (alone) should the believers’ trust”: (122)

Flag 14: Battle of Uhad: (Imran-3: 121-122)


  1. Also see Notes (Imran-3: 168)
  2. Defeat at Battle of Uhad before final victory: A TRIAL for the faithfuls: Allah’s help, reprimand, warnings and assurances not to lose heart and be patient and trust in Allah’s help: (Imran-3:121-122, & 139-160 & 165-168-172):
  3. The early defeat exposed, distinguished and Identified true believers from “Munafiqeen” (Hypocrites):
  4. Final victory with hidden help from Allah which caused scare amongst Makkan warriors resulting in a hasty retreat in complete disarray:
  5. Abdullah bin Ubay with 300 supporters (out of total of 1000 Muslim men) abandoned the Holy Prophet:
  6. As against 700 men left with Holy Prophet an estimated alliance of 3000 pagan warriors of Makkan tribes headed by brand of Umayyad (Abu Sufyan) supplemented by secretly negotiated alliance with Jews of Madina:
  7. Holy Prophet stationed 50 archers at a narrow pass in the hills of Uhad from which enemy could attack with instructions not to vacate this key battlefield position under any circumstances:
  8. Initial upper hand of Muslims with pagan forces in partial retreat due to outstanding bravery valour and courage of Hamza and Ali:
  9. Rejoicing Muslim men including assigned archers at the ‘Pass’ left their battlefield positions to collect the war booty:
  10. Hamza, the valiant warrior, Holy Prophet’s uncle was killed:
  11. Waiting Khalid Bin Walid (Not Muslim at that time) attacked from the unguarded ‘Pass‘ and turned Muslim victory into defeat:
  12. Muslim men including Holy Prophet’s close companions deserted him as he on being injured fell down:
  13. A cry in the battlefield declaring ‘Muhammad‘ has been killed was heard:
  14. Ali’s un-matched courage, bravery and valour supported by only two other companions (Abudajjana & Sahl Ibn Hunayf) not only saved the Holy Prophet but forced the enemy to retreat again:
  15. Praise of Ali from unknown source echoed in the battlefield with a celebrated declaration (La Fata Illa Ali La Saif illa Zulfiqar– There is no man save Ali and there is no sword save Dhulfiqar) creating a scare amongst Makkan warriors:
  16. After initial retreat Abu Sufyan reviewed the circumstance which turned a certain victory into defeat and decided to launch a counter attack:
  17. Rumours concerning possible pursue by Ali ibne Abu Talib created scare in the hearts of Makkan men thereby completely breaking their spirit which resulted in an abrupt disorganised hasty retreat to Makkah:
  18. The battle of Uhad can be stated to be a trial and test for those who professed to believe in Allah and His messenger (Ankabut-29: 2-4)

” Indeed Allah has succoured you at (the Battle of) Badar when you were contemptibly weak; so safeguard yourself with full awareness of divine laws, so that haply you may be thankful”: (123)

(Remember O Muhammad) when you said to the believers: Does it not suffice you that your Lord should help you with three thousand angels sent down (from heaven)”: (124)

Flag 15: Battle of Badar: (Imran-3: 13,123-125):


Badar was a camping ground and a market, about 20 miles northwest of Madina where this crucial battle took place.

  1. On the hands of Hamza and Ali, under the command of the holy Prophet, Islam had won its first and decisive victory which was of the greatest importance for the spread of Islam.
  2. Seventy of the chosen chiefs of Quraysh were slain and an equal number were taken prisoners, a complete rout.
  3. Allah’s reinforcement of Muslims by angels was in the sense to muster courage amongst them and to frighten the enemy at the sight of such a large assemblage. It was Allah alone who caused Muslim victory through the valour Hamza and Ali.

” Yes! if you are steadfast and safeguard yourself with full awareness of divine laws, and (the enemy) come upon you suddenly, your Lord will help you with five thousand (fully equipped) distinguished angels”: (125)

” Allah did not affect this but as a good tiding for you, and that thereby your hearts might be at rest (assured). And (there) is no succour but from Allah, the almighty, the all-wise”: (126)

” That he may cut of a part of those who do not believe, or throw them with the face to ground so that they go back disappointed”: (127)


Context: Battle of Badar

” Not all with you is anything of the authority whether He turns to them (mercifully) or punishes them, for, verily, they are transgressors”: (128)


  1. Context Battle Of Uhud: (Imran-3: 128-129)
  2. The holy Prophet concerned with the uncertain faith of the companions at Uhad and hypocrite tendencies: Thereupon this verse was revealed:
  3. Allah put him at ease by saying that it was He who might open their hearts to the true faith or inflict immediate punishment.

” And to Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. He forgives whomsoever He pleases and punishes whomsoever He pleases. Allah is forgiving, merciful”: (129)

” O you who believe! Do not devour usury, multiplied many fold, and safeguard yourself with full awareness of Allah’s laws, that haply you may be successful”: (130)

Flag 16: Usury (Interest): (Imran-3:130)

” And fear the fire prepared for the disbelievers”: (131)

” And obey Allah and the messenger (Muhammad) that haply you may be shown mercy”: (132)

Flag 17: Obey Allah & Messenger: (Imran-3: 132)

” Vie with one another in hastening (to obtain) forgiveness from your Lord, and (toward) paradise, as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for those who safeguard themselves with full awareness of divine laws”: (133)

” Those who spend in prosperity and straitness, those who control (their) anger and are forgiving toward people; Allah love those who do good”: (134)

” And those who when they do a shameful deed or wrong themselves, remember Allah and implore pardon for their sins — and who forgives sins save Allah? – and do not persist in what they have done, while they know”: (135)

Flag 18: Discover Piety? (Imran-3: 134-135)

” (As for) those – their reward is pardon from their Lord and gardens in which rivers flow, wherein they shall abide. Excellent is the reward of those who act (righteously)”: (136)

Flag 19: Would acts alone could ensure Paradise? (Imran: 133-136)


  1. While acts and qualities identified above (Imran-3: 133-136) and others indicated elsewhere in the holy Quran may be leading to Paradise; the same alone may not constitute an adequate basis for the same. In other words, these may not, alone, qualify for ultimate reward.
  2. (Imran-3:133) clearly indicates that every soul requires Allah’s forgiveness
  3. On the authority of (Nahjul Balagha/Dua-e-Kumail): Imam Ali’s prayer to Allah seeking His decision on the basis of Allah’s mercy and forgiveness rather than on acts of his worship (by a person no less than Ali Ibna Abu Talib)

” Indeed before you, there had already been examples; so travel in the earth and see what has been the end of those who belied (Allah’s Prophets)”: (137)

Flag 20: End of Disbelievers: (Imran-3:137)

Signs of some the ruins exist even today.

” And do not lose heart and do not grieve, for you shall have the upper hand if you are (true) believers”: (139)


Revisiting Batlle of Uhad: See notes (Imran-3:168 & 122)

” If you have been afflicted with an injury, the (disbelieving) people too have suffered a wound. We bring about these days (change of fortune) in the affairs of men, by turns, so that Allah may know those who have (sincerely) believed, and that He may take witness from among you; and Allah does not love the unjust”: (140)

Flag: 21 Witnesses on the Day of Judgement: (Imran-3: 140)


(i) Reference { > ” The knower of the unseen and the seen, the ever-prevalent, the all wise”: (Taghabun-64: 18)}
(ii) The trial of the believers: Reference {(Imran-140 & 142) indicating: > “so that Allah may know”: or > “when Allah has not yet known” and other similar statements elsewhere in the holy Quran refer:
(iii) Allah’s knowledge is perfect and nothing happens in the universe without His permission or decree. Nevertheless, Allah with His Infinite Wisdom and the Absolute Justice decreed availability of physical evidence along with witnesses to be an essential requirement on the day of the judgement.
(iv) Allah’s decree is equally applicable in respect of judgements concerning all individuals. Allah’s witnesses include angles, prophets, false gods, aggrieved parties as well as biological organs of individuals such as hands, legs, eyes, etc besides Allah being a witness Himself

” And that Allah may remove impurities from those who believe and destroy the infidels”: (141)

” Do you imagine (O Muslims) that (all of) you will enter paradise, when Allah has not yet known those (of you) who have striven hard (in His way), nor yet known those (of you) who are steadfast”? (142)

” And indeed you desired death before you met it, so now you have seen it, even while you look (at it)”: (143)

” And Mohammad is only a messenger; (other) messengers have (already) passed away before him. Will you then turn back on your heels if he dies or he is slain? And he who turns back on his heels will do no harm to Allah; and immediately Allah will reward the grateful”: (144)

Flag 22: Allah’s Reprimand at (Uhad): Is Muhammad’s Death an end? (Imran-3: 144)


(i) Revisiting (Battle of Uhad): See notes (Imran-3:168 & 122)

” And it is not (possible) for any soul to die except by Allah’s permission at time recorded in the book that fixes the term (of life)”: (145) >>

Flag 23: Fixed time of the death and the Term of Life: Also see (Imran-3: 145)

” He who desires (his) reward in this world, We give him thereof; and he who desires (his) reward in the hereafter, We give him thereof. And anon We shall reward the grateful”: (145)

” And many a prophet has fought with innumerable godly men beside him, while they did not lose heart on anything that befell them in the way of Allah, nor they weakened, nor they humbled themselves (before the enemies). And Allah loves the steadfast”: (146)

” And their saying was nothing but that they prayed: Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and our excesses in our affairs, and set our footholds firm and help us against the disbelieving people”: (147)

” So Allah gave them the rewards of this world and the excellent reward of the hereafter. And Allah loves those who do good”: (148)

” O you who believe! If you obey the disbelievers, they will make you turn back on your heels, and you will turn back losers”: (149)

” But Allah is your guardian and He is the best of helpers”: (150)

” We shall cast dread into the hearts of the disbelievers; because they have associated with Allah that of which He has not sent down any authority; and their abode shall be fire; how bad is the abode of the unjust”: (151)

” And indeed Allah made good His promise to you when you routed them by His permission; until (the moment) when you flinched and disputed about the command and disobeyed after He had shown you that you loved. Some of you desire the world and some the hereafter. Then you turned away (flee) from them, so that He might test you (in the sincerity of your faith). Yet (in spite of this) He has forgiven you. Allah is the Lord of grace to the believers”: (152)

” (Remember) when you ran (away) up onto the hill and did not (even) look back at anyone, while the messenger (Muhammad) was calling to you from behind! So He inflicted (upon) you anguish after anguish, so that you might (learn) not to grieve at what eluded you, nor at what befell you; and Allah is (fully) aware of what you do”: (153)

Flag 24: Deserting Muhammad at (Uhad) & Infliction of punishment: (Imran-3: 153)


(i) The running away from the battlefield was a shameful deed and was due to weakness in their faith. The names of deserters are written in all the authentic books of history (Tarikhs written by: Tabari, Khamis and Kamil: Izalatulkhifa by Shah Waliullah; Al-Faruq by Shibli)
(ii) Mere companionship of the holy Prophet is not enough to be blessed. Any claim of striving hard in the way of Allah needs to be supported by passing through an equally hard test as well.
(iii) Those who had run from the battlefield returned to Madina after three days saying that they took the flight on hearing a cry announcing the killing of the holy Prophet. The verse (Imran-3:144) admonishing the act was subsequently revealed. Anas bin Nadar exhorted the fleeing deserters not to give up the fight because the God of Muhammad is ever-living and eternal, even if the holy Prophet was no more among them.

” Then after the anguish, Allah sent down security upon you (in the form of) slumber. It overcame a group of you, while the other group, who cared only for their own selves, were thinking thoughts of ignorance about Allah quite unjustly. They were saying: Is there anything (share) for us in the authority? Say (O Muhammad): Verily the authority rests wholly with Allah” (154 )

Flag 25: Authority belongs to Allah alone: (Imran-3:154)


They hid in their sleeves what they would not reveal to you; they were saying: if we had had anything (share) in the authority, we would not have been slain at this place”: (154) >>

” Say (O Muhammad): Even if you had remained in your homes they who were decreed to be slain would have gone forth to the places where they (now) lie”: (154) >>


(i) Time and location of death as decreed by Allah: Also see (Imran-3:145)

” And that (is so that) Allah might test (prove) what was in your breast and purge what was in your hearts; for verily, Allah knows what is (hidden) in your breasts”: (154)

” Verily those of you who turned back on the day (of Uhad) when the hosts met, (it was) only Shaytan who made them backslide on account of some of their (sinful) actions; but indeed Allah has pardoned them; verily, Allah is oft-forgiving, forbearing”: (155)


See Revisiting (Battle of Uhad: Imran-3:168); Also see Notes (Imran-3: 122)

” O you who believe! Do not be like disbelievers who said of their brethren when they travelled in the earth or were fighting (in the way of Allah): Had they been with us they would not have died and would not have been slain. (This happened) so that Allah may make this an intense regret in their hearts; and it is Allah who gives life and causes death; and Allah sees what you do”: (156)

” And if you are slain in the way of Allah or you die, then pardon and mercy from Allah are better than all that they amass”: (157)

Note :

See (Imran-169) also

” For if you die or you are slain, verily you will be gathered by Allah”: (158)

” Thus it is mercy of Allah that you are lenient to them; if you had been severe and hard-hearted, they would surely have dispersed from around you. So forgive them and seek pardon for them, and take their counsel in the (conduct of) affairs, but when you are resolved, then put your trust in Allah, for Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him)”: (159)

Flag 26: Allah’s Strategic Advice: (Imran-3: 159)


(i) Handling of faithfuls during Islamic incubation period: Policy adjustment to suit political environment being Allah’s Way (Sunnat) (Imran-3: 159)
(ii) The deserters who caused a disaster at (Uhad) deserved to be punished but leniency shown to them did not wipe out their evil deed of desertion. At that formative stage of Islamic Society, pardon being a better strategic option; the holy prophet was asked to adopt the same. The objective of the pardoning was to prevent them from making mischief and to let the progress of divine mission continue as unhampered as possible. Also see note (Imran-3: 169).

” If Allah helps you, none shall overcome you; but if He forsakes you, who is there who can help you after that? So the believers should rely on Allah (160)

” It is not for any prophet to deceive. He who deceives (uses treachery) shall bring his fraud with him on the day of resurrection; then every soul shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly”: (161)

” Is he who abides by the pleasure of Allah is like him who has brought on himself the wrath from Allah and whose abode shall be the fire? What an evil destination (it is)”! (162)

” They are (of diverse) rank with Allah, and Allah sees what they do”: (163)

” Indeed Allah conferred (His) favour upon the believers when He raised up a messenger (Muhammad) among them from their own selves; he rehearses to them His signs, and purifies them, and teaches them the book (Quran) and wisdom, though before this they were in manifest error”: (164)

” What! When a misfortune befell you (at Uhad) while you had already inflicted twice as much { Reference:on the disbelievers at Badar: (Imran 3: 124)}, you said: Whence is this? Say (O Muhammad): This is from your (own) selves; verily Allah has power over all things”: (165)


Battle of Badar: See Note (Imran-3:124): Battle of Uhad: See Note (Imran-3:122 & 168)

” And what befell you on the day when the two hosts met, was by Allah’s permission, and that He might know (distinguish) the believers”: (166)

Flag 27: Defeat before ultimate victory at Uhad was with Allah’s permission:(Imran-3:166)


(i) Also see note (Imran-3: 122 & 168)

” And that He might know (point out) the hypocrites; unto whom it was said: Come! Fight in the way of Allah, or defend (at least repel the foe). They said: If we had known (there was) a fight, we would have followed you. On that day they were nearer to infidelity than faith. They speak with their mouths a thing which was not in their hearts, and Allah knows best what they conceal”: (167)

Flag 28 : Allah’s beneficence (Rahmaniyyat)/ (Al-Mizan:The Scale)/(Sajdah:Prostration) and the Battle of (Uhad): (Imran-3:167):


(i) The battle of (Uhad) provides examples of Allah’s justice (awards, punishment & consequences) along with his Rahamiyyat all in one place.

(ii) The precise laws, made by Allah, governing the universe, bear witness to Allah’s wisdom and absolute justice and also to His favours to His creatures. Man relies upon the laws operating the universe and, without fear of an arbitrary change, directs his activities in the light of knowledge he has acquired about its working. Although Allah has absolute power over all things yet it is His absolute justice (Adl), a consequence of His beneficence (Rahmaniyyat) that He makes no arbitrary changes in His laws {Allah’s Way (Sunnat)}. Otherwise, there would be chaos and disorder in the universe. This fact of order and harmony was made known to man at a time when only conjecture and superstitions prevailed. It gave stimulus and sense of direction to man to observe, contemplate and find out the laws operating the creation (References: Jathiya-45: 5: Anbiya-21: 20 & 33: Yasin-36; 37-40)

(iii) Allah’s Absolute Justice (Al-Mizan:The Scale): (Rahman-55: 7-9): Scientific balance pertaining to all acts in the universe which in case of mankind applies to a balance in all acts without transgressing.

(iv) PROSTRATION: In addition to its usual meaning as applicable to the children of Adam, also means precise functioning of creation according to the laws made by Allah

” (These are) those who, while they sat at home, said of their brethren: Had they (the martyrs) obeyed us, they would not have been slain. Say (O Muhammad): Ward of death from yourself if you are truthful”: (168)

Flag 29: Revisiting Battle of (Uhad): (Imran-168)


(i) Persons who were not at (Badr) desired to be present with the holy Prophet at another battle in order to gain distinction. When they had seen the battle of (Uhad) and brought back their slain and wounded relatives, they indulged in lamentation.

(ii) After the Battle of Uhad (Imran-3:139) was revealed to create confidence in the Muslims so that they might not grieve excessively for the loss of relatives and because of a partial setback in the battlefield which was due to their own greed and negligence.

(iii) Whatever happened, was with Allah’s permission and inline with His absolute justice and His Sunnat (Allah’s Way): Khalid Bin Walid’s (not a Muslim at that time) intelligent battle plan was awarded on merit alone; whereas lack of discipline, disobedience, negligence and greed on part of the faithfuls was punished being poor performance which must be viewed on its own merit alone.

Flag 30: Allah’s (Rahmaniyyat) and Battle of Uhad: (Imran-3: 168)


(i) Allah intended, by this reverse, to sift the true from the false from those who professed Islam. The battlefield test clearly drew the line between the sincere faithfuls and those who nominally joined for material gain, pride and glory of the victories.

(ii) With the above mentioned objective achieved, Allah’s help came in the form of an extraordinary and superhuman valour of Ali Ibna Abu Talib creating immense fear in the hearts of the infidels which once again converted an assured defeat into ultimate victory.

Flag 31: Allah’s Highlighting of Hypocrisy: (Imran-3: 154 & 168)


(i) A comparison of two groups subsequent to the battle of Uhad: (Imran-3:154):

(ii) An agreeable, refreshing sound sleep because of their faith in Allah: and the other group questioning and doubting the holy Prophets mission altogether. Allah had made known that was in their hearts (hypocrisy) to the people who will come in this world till the day of resurrection

” And do not reckon those who are slain in the way of Allah to be dead. No they are alive with their Lord, (and) getting sustenance (from Him)”: (169)

Flag 32: Allah’s Declaration: Shaheeds not to be reckoned as dead: (Imran-3:169 & Baqarah-2: 155):


(i) The martyrs who are nearest to Allah and occupy highest positions are in direct communion with their Lord. Their active consciousness perceives that which is happening in this world even after their departure from here. They can reach us and we can have access to them through the grace of Allah; on account of their direct relationship with Him. They can also carry into effect what they desire by Allah’s permission

” Rejoicing what Allah has bestowed on them of His grace, rejoicing for those who have not yet joined them from behind them, that no fear shall come on them nor shall they grieve”: (170)

” They rejoice in the grace from Allah and (His) bounty, and truly Allah does not let the reward of the believers fritter away”: (171)

” (As for) those who responded to the call of Allah and the messenger (Muhammad) (even) after the wounds that had been inflicted on them; for such of those who do good and safeguard themselves with awareness of divine laws, there is a great reward”: (172)


Context: Battle of (Uhad: Imran-3:122 & 168)

” Those to whom the people said: Verily the people have mustered (strong) against you, therefore, fear them: it only increased their faith; and they said: Allah is sufficient for us! And most excellent is He who protects us”: (173)


(i) After the Battle of (Uhad); Abu Sufyan’s allies in Madina gave forth an exaggerated account of the preparation at Makka of another attack. Instead of being deterred, Ali Ibna Abu Talib responded in the words as quoted in the (Imran-3:173) above

” They returned, therefore, with grace and favour from Allah and no harm touched them, and they followed the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace”:(174)

” It is only Shaytan who frightens you of his friends (against supporting the holy Prophet). Do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers (175)

Flag 33: Abu Sufyan’s Threat & Ali’s Response: (Imran-3: 173-175)


(i) An expedition to encounter Abu Sufyan’s plan was undertaken. The holy Prophet went to take on the Makkan army which did not appear on the scene. The faithfuls returned safely in good spirits

” Do not let those who vie with one another in infidelity grieve you. Verily they shall not harm Allah at all. Allah intends that He shall not assign any share for them in the hereafter; and there is a great chastisement for them”: (176)

” Verily those who purchase infidelity at the cost of faith shall not harm Allah at all; and there is a painful chastisement for them”: (177)

” Do not let those who disbelieve think that the respite We give them is good for their selves; We only give them respite that they may grow in sin; and there is a disgraceful chastisement for them”: (178)

Flag 34: Hazrat Zaynab’s response to Yazid in his court: (Imran-178)


(i) When prisoners from Karbala were presented in Yazid’s court, he bragged and quoted (Imran-3: 26) in his support. Bibi Zaynab encountered his claim by quoting (Imran-3:178) in response:

(ii) Yazid bin Mu-awiyah, de facto ruler, argued with the Ahlul Bayt by quoting (Imran-3: 26) that he was also the de jure authority. Bibi Zaynab binta Ali proved his deceitful claim false by showing the inherent weakness in the theory of fatalism by quoting (Imran-3: 178) and (Rum-30: 10)

” Allah will not leave the believers in the state they are in till he has set apart the impure from the pure; and Allah will not acquaint you with unseen, but Allah chooses from the messengers whomsoever He pleases, so believe in Allah and His messengers; and if you believe and safeguard yourselves with full awareness of divine laws, then there is a great reward for you”: (179)

Flag 35: Allah Does not share Unseen (Ghaib) with anyone: (Imran-3: 179)

” And let not those who are niggardly of things that Allah has given them of His grace think that it is good for them. Nay! it is bad for them; that which they hoard (due to niggardliness) shall shortly be hung around their necks (as a colour) on the day of resurrection. And Allah’s is the heritage of the heavens and the earth, and verily, Allah is beware of what you do”: (180)

Flag 36: Niggardliness-A Curse: (Imran-3: 180)

” Allah has indeed heard the saying of those who say: Allah is poor and we are rich. Certainly, We shall record what they say and their unjust slaying of the prophets and We shall say:Taste you the torment of burning”! (181)

Flag 37: Allah is Poor-Making Fun of Allah by Jews: (Imran-3: 181)


(i) Context Banu Qaynqa (Jewish tribe who were money lenders and goldsmiths thought it fit to make fun of the Quranic expression: ” lend to Allah a goodly loan (Baqarah-2: 245)”
(ii) Persistent rebellious attitude on part of Jews against the holy Prophet (Imran-2: 182-184)

” This is what your hands have sent in advance before you, and because Allah is not unjust to (any of His) servants”: (182)

” (To Those) who say: Verily, Allah has covenanted with us that we should not believe in any of messenger until he brings us an offering which (a) fire (from heavens) shall devour. Say (O Muhammad): Indeed messengers came to you before me with miracles and with that which you said. Why, then, did you slay them, if what you say is true”? (183)

” And if they belie you, then so did they belie messengers, before you, who came with clear signs (miracles), and scriptures, and the luminous (enlightening) book”: (184)

” Every soul will taste of death; and verily you shall be paid your recompense in full on the day of resurrection. And he who is removed from the fire and admitted into the paradise has indeed achieved his goal; and as for the life of this world, it is nothing but a merchandise of vanity”: (185)

Flag 38: No getting away from death (Kullu Nafsin Zaiqa-tul-Mout): (Imran-3: 185)

” Certainly you shall be tried in your possessions and in your persons; and certainly you shall hear much annoyance from those who were given the book before you, and from those who associate (other gods with Allah); and if you endure with patience and safeguard yourself with full awareness of divine laws, then verily that is a matter of (very great) resolve”: (186)

” And (recall O Muhammad) when Allah took a pledge from those who who were given the book: You shall surely make it known to mankind, and you shall not hide it. Then they flung it behind their backs and bartered it for a small price; but how bad is the bargain they made’! (187)

” Think not that those who rejoice for what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done, will escape the chastisement; there is a grievous torment for them “: (188)

” And to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and Allah has power over all the things”: (189)

” Verily, in the creation of heavens and earth and the alteration of night and day, are signs for men of the understanding” (190)

” Those who remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining and reflecting and contemplate on the creation of the heavens and the earth, (say): Our Lord! You have not created (all) this in vain>>>!

Flag 39: Invitation to Contemplate (Imran-3: 190 &191)

” Glory be to You! Save us then from the torment of fire”: (191)

” Our Lord! Whom you cause to enter the fire, him indeed you have disgraced; and for the unjust there shall be no helpers”: (192)

” Our Lord! We have indeed heard the voice of a crier (messenger) calling to faith: Believe in your Lord! So we believed. Our Lord! Forgive us then our sins, and remove from us our evil deeds, and cause us to die along with the virtuous”: (193)

” Our Lord! Give us that you have promised to us by Your messengers; and do not disgrace us on the day of judgement. Verily, you do not break Your promise”: (194)

Flag 40: And submission to Allah seeking forgiveness (Imran-3:191,193 & 194)

” So their Lord heard their prayer and answered: I will not suffer the work of any worker to be lost>>>: (Imran-3; 195)

Flag 41: Efforts (Good or Bad) to have Consequences Unfailingly: (Imran-3: 195)


(i) Efforts (Good or Bad) shall always result in consequences: (Imran:195)

(ii) A good example is the success of Khalid Bin Walid (Not a Muslim at that time) led attack on Muslims in the battle of Uhad.

(iii) Khalid’s effort being brilliant in anticipation and execution, though against Allah’s forces led by the holy Prophet, were adequately rewarded.

(iv) As a corollary; (Imran-195) also establishes that all Work (Good or Bad) shall carry consequences; the reward and punishment to follow inline with the nature of the deed. Brilliant forgery, excellence in gambling, etc all being examples.

(v) Accountability: The worldly success, however, in no way relieves the evil doers from the responsibility and accompanying consequences which
have been outlined in the holy book (Quran) extensively and unambiguously.

” male or female, one of you is from the other”: (195) >>> ” (195)

Flag 42: Status of Women in Islam: (Imran-3: 195):


(i) A sub-human status was allotted to women in almost all philosophies and religions, before Islam. In this verse it is stated that men and women are counterparts to each other and of the same human status. Thus truth was proclaimed to mankind not in the twentieth but in the sixth century of the Christian era. Islam recognises perfect equality of both sexes, according to their natural assignments and native endowments

(ii) No ‘Gender Bias’ in Islam

” therefore, those who migrated and were driven from their homes and suffered harm for my cause and who fought and were slain, I will certainly blot out their sins from them, and I will certainly admit them into gardens in which rivers flow — a reward from Allah, with Him is the excellent reward”: (195)

” Let not the coming and goings of the unbelievers in the land (their prosperity) deceive you (O Muslims)”: (196)

” It is but a brief comfort; thereafter their abode is hell — and what an evil abode”:(197)

” But as for those who safeguard themselves with full awareness of their Lord’s divine laws, for them are the gardens in which rivers flow; wherein they shall abide for ever — such (a gift) of welcome they will receive from Allah; and that which is with Allah is the best for the righteous”: (198)

” And verily for the people of the book there are some who believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to you and that which has been sent down to them, humbling themselves before Allah; they do not barter signs of Allah for a small price. These, theyshall have their recompense with their Lord. Indeed, Allah is quick in reckoning”: (199)

Flag 43: Not all amongst ‘People of the Book’ are alike: (Imran-3: 199)

” O you who believe! Be patient and vie one with another in endurance and be ready (to defend against surprise attacks) and safeguard yourself with full awareness of Allah’s laws that haply you may succeed”: (200)

Surah Ali’Imran-3 ends Separa-4 (Lan Tanulu) continues An Nisa-4 (01-23)


” O Men, safeguard yourselves with full awareness of the divine laws before your Lord who created you from a single self, and from it created its mate, and from two of them spread men and women in multitudes; so fear Allah in whose name you importunate one another, and (be mindful) of kinship; verily Allah keeps watch over you”: (01)

Flag 44: Adam (lone and single) common ancestor of the entire (Mankind) & Significance of (Kinship): (Nisa-4: 01)


(i) Arham (plural of rihm) implies kinship which is regarded as one of the most important social institution in Islam.
(ii) One of the reasons for making the love of the Ahlul Bayt (a self generative good which encompasses all human activities) obligatory, as a recompense of prophet-hood (Shura-42: 23)

” And give to Orphans their property, and do not substitute (your) worthless things for their good once, and do not devour their property (by intermixing it) with your own; for verily this is a great crime”: (02)


See note: (Nisa-10)

” And if you fear that you cannot deal justly with the orphans, then marry woman who seems good to you, two or three or four; and if you fear that you shall not treat (so many) with equity then (marry) one only, or (the captive) that your right hand possesses; it is more proper, that you may not transgress”: (03)

Flag 45: Restricted (Polygamy) and highly Encouraged (Monogamy) in Islam: (Nisa-04: 03)


(i) Concisely, Islam, in unequivocal terms, though indirectly, deprecates (Disapproves) polygamy.

” Give to women their dowries of your free will; but if they willingly forego part of it themselves, then (you may) use it for your advantage; (it shall be) beneficial (to you)”: (04)

Flag 46: Obligations towards payment of Dowry (Mehr): (Nisa-4: 04)

” And do not give your property which Allah has made a means of your sustenance to the weak of understanding; but feed them, and clothe them therewith and speak to them with kindness”: (05)

” And test (and try) the orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if you find them mature, handover their property to them, and do not consume it wastefully and hastily (fearing) lest they should reach their maturity; and whoso (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain (from consuming it); whoso is poor let him take thereof only as much as is fair. And when you handover their property to them, have (the transaction)
witnessed in their presence; and Allah is sufficient a reckoner”: (06)

” For men, there is a share in what their parents and kindred leave behind, and for women a share in what their parents and kindred leave behind, be it little, or be it much; a decreed share”: (07)

” And when kinsfolk and orphans and the needy are present at the time of the division, provide for them also from it, and speak kindly to them”: (08)

” And let those fear (in their behaviour towards orphans) who, if they leave behind weak offspring, would be afraid on their account; so let them safeguard themselves with full awareness of Allah’s laws, and speak the right words”: (09)

” Verily, those who swallow the property of the orphans unjustly, swallow only fire into their bellies; and they shall soon enter into the blazing fire”: (10)

Flag 47: Orphans, their Property and Guardianship: (Nisa-4: 02/06/08-10)


The guiding principles include:
(i) Fairness, just and equitable behaviour without deploying any tricks on part of the Guardian.
(ii) Complete handover of all assets by the Guardian to orphans on achieving maturing.
(iii) Appropriate safeguards to protect property of weak orphans (Lacking capability to handle the same) standout as being mandatory.
(iv) Rich Guardians should not burden the assets of the Orphans by claiming a share for providing services to them.
(v) Poor Guardians may retain a fair and reasonable proportion for themselves.
(vi) Documentation and witnessing of the handover required.
(vii) Swallowing property of Orphans (includes cheating or manoeuvring in any way) leads to an assured landing into hell.

” Allah commands you concerning your children: for the male a share equal to that of two females; and if they be all females, (two or) more than two, then for them is two-third of what is left; and if there be only one, for her is one half. And for each of the deceased’s parents is a sixth part of what is left; if he has a child; but if he has no child, and his parents are his heirs, then the mother shall inherit one-third; and if he has left brothers, the mother shall inherit one-sixth after payment of the legacies bequeathed of the debts. Of your fathers and your sons you do not know who are more useful to you in benefit. These (assignments) are the decrees of Allah; verily Allah is knowing wise”: (11)

” For you is a half of what your wives leave if they have no children; but if they have a child; then you shall have fourth what they leave, after the payment of legacies bequeathed by her or the debts; and for them is fourth of what you leave if you have no child, and if you have a child, then for them is one-eighth of what you leave after the payment of legacies bequeathed by you, or the debts, or if a man or woman leaves (his or her property) to be inherited by a distant heir, and he or she has a brother or a sister, they shall each inherit one-sixth, but if there be more than this then they are sharers in the one-third, after (payment ) of legacies bequeathed or the debts, without prejudice to others; this is an ordinance from Allah; and Allah is knowing, forbearing”: (12)

Flag 48: Inheritance: Ordinance from Allah: (Nisa-4: 7/11-14): (Anfal-8: 75): (Ahzab-33: 6)


(a) The issue of distribution of wealth, left by the deceased, has been precisely settled, taking into consideration interest of all concerned individuals (Imran-3: 11&12)
(b)) The standard principal is to prefer blood relations: (Anfal-8: 75 and Ahzab-33: 6). Among such relatives the closer prevents the more remote in the chain of relation

(i) Lineage is more eligible than than the distant relationship
(ii) Among the distant kinship those closer to the lineage restrict the less connected
(iii) Those who are paternally and maternally connected are preferred over those who are either only paternally or only maternally related
(iv) Depriving (Bibi Fatima) from her inheritance (Garden of Fadak), which was given to her by the holy Prophet, was against Allah’s command

” These are the limits set by Allah; and whoso obeys Allah and His messenger (Muhammad), He will cause him to enter the gardens in which the rivers flow, to abide therein for ever, and this is the great achievement”: (13)

” And whoso disobeys Allah and His messenger (Muhammad) and transgresses His limits, He shall cause him to enter the fire, to abide therein forever; and for him shall be a painful chastisement”: (14)

” And as for those of your women who are guilty of lewdness, then bring against them four witnesses from amongst yourselves; and if they bear witness (to the fact), confine them to their houses until death takes them or Allah makes for them a way”: (15)

Flag 49: Lewdness (Fahisha): (Nisa-4:15):


(i) Fahisha in its general significance is ‘an excess, an enormity, anything exceeding the bounds of rectitude’, but when particularised, signifies ‘adultery or fornication’, and in this context, evidently means an act of adultery.
(ii) The evidence in the case of adultery must be, according to the law of Islam, ocular, not heresy, conjectural or circumstantial. Every possible safeguard is taken against hasty and unfounded accusations. When four men testify that they saw with their own eyes the actual carnal conjunction, punishments mentioned in this verse, can be inflicted.

” And if two among you commit it, punish them both; then if they repent and amend, turn away from them; verily Allah is oft-returning, merciful”: (16)

” Verily, Allah accepts repentance of only those who do an evil act in ignorance, then quickly turn (to Him); these are they towards whom Allah turns mercifully, and Allah is all-knowing, wise”: (17)

” And (He does not accept) the repentance of those (who continue) to do evil until death approaches one of them, and he says: Surely, now I repent. Nor is (repentance) of those who die while they are unbelievers; these are they for whom We have made ready a grievous torment”: (18)

” O you who believe! It is not lawful for you to inherit women by force; and straiten them in order to take away part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of clear lewdness; but deal kindly with them, and if you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing whilst Allah has placed in it abundant good”: (19)

” And if you should desire to change one wife for another, and have given one of them a heap of gold, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it away by slandering and (using) clear crookedness”? (20)

” And how could you take it when one of you have gone into the other, and they have taken from you a firm covenant”? (21)

Flag 50: Norms for married men: (Nisa-4: 19-21):


(i) All barbaric customs aimed at inheriting women by force, manoeuvring to swallow their assets and other similar practices were set aside by this verse (NIsa-19)
(ii) Understanding the biological handicaps of women, men should live with them with tolerance and justice, even if they do not love them, because men may not like a thing, yet Allah might have endued it with goodness. Love, justice, goodwill and fair treatment s the essence of the matrimonial code of Islam

” And do not marry those women whom your fathers have married, except what has already happened in the past: it was shameful and abominable; and an evil way”: (22)

” Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and the daughters of a brother, and the daughters of a sister, and your foster mothers, and the mothers of your wives, and your step daughters under your guardianship, (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone into them, then it is no sin for you (to marry them); and the wives of your sons who are from your own loins; and marrying two sisters (at one and the same time), except what has already happened in the past, ; verily, Allah is forgiving merciful”: (23)

Flag 51: Forbidden Women & Associated Scientific Background: (Nisa-4: 23)


Women forbidden based on relationship in the light of Science: (Nisa-4: 23): The list contained herein includes, largely, blood relationships besides incorporating desirable social norms. These prohibitions, with respect to blood relationships, have been analysed in the light of the modern day science below:

Allah’s Way (Sunnat):
(i) The term ‘sunna’ occurs fourteen times in nine Quranic verses. It is used in four verses in the expression ‘sunnat al-awwalin’ or the ‘sunna of the ancients’. The term ‘sunna’ is usually interpreted as meaning ‘example’ or ‘fate’, but it is a more general concept that means ‘way’, practice’, ‘course’, ‘tradition’, ‘habit’, ‘state’, or ‘situation’. So ‘sunnat al-awwalin’ should mean ‘the way or practice of the ancients’.These are three of those four verses: (Anfal-8: 38): (Hijr-15: 13): (Kahf-18: 55) The term ‘sunna’ appears eight times in five verses in the expression ‘sunnat Allah’ or the ‘way of Allah’: (Ahzab-33: 38 & 62: Mumin-40: 85 & Fat-h-48: 23) One of these verses has both expressions ‘sunnat al-awwalin’ and ‘sunnat Allah’: (Fatir-35: 43)
Finally, this verse uses the term ‘sunna’ twice, first in reference to the way of the messengers that God sent before Muhammad and then in the expression ‘sunnatuna (Our way)’, meaning God’s Way (Contribution of the original source acknowledged with thanks).

” This was our way with those messengers whom We sent before you, and you shall not find a change in Our way (Bani Israil-17: 77)

(ii) Allah’s Way (Sunnat) is not limited to the way of messengers (including that of the holy Prophet). It includes the entire range of His laws,decrees and commandments pertaining to the universe itself. Simultaneously, it has also been clearly declared that no change in Allah’s Way (Sunnat) shall ever be found or discovered.

(iii) Allah’s decree in a scientific language (Yasin-36: 40) clearly identifies that the entire universe ceaselessly follows His decrees (full range of scientific laws) without fail.

(iv) Blood relationship and chances of genetic disorder:

  • Marriages between people who are related is common. Unlike what many people think, their offspring are not doomed to birth defects or medical problems.
  • In fact, unless both parents carry the same gene mutation, the couple’s chance of having a healthy child is almost as high as any other couple.
  • Genetically speaking, the closer one is to a family member, the more genes will be shared. Monozygotic (identical) twins have the same genetic make-up and share 100% of their genes. A parent and child share half their genes, as do siblings. An uncle and his niece, or an aunt and her nephew (a second-degree relationship) share a quarter of their genes.
  • The sharing of a significant proportion of their genes, couples are at risk of having a child with “double dose” of a faulty gene with accompanying consequences.

(v) Science and Allah’s Way (Sunnat):

  • The first thing Allah created was the intellect and the ignorance subsequently. The other Divine creations followed.
  • Allah insists on the use of the faculty of intellect bestowed by Him on man, to be resorted to, for observing, evaluating, assessing and analysing with reasoning and arriving at conclusions. The results of such exercise as a whole, including all details contained therein, may be termed as knowledge (Ilm). The knowledge, therefore, is the sum total of all the results of the collected information and experience. Other definitions of knowledge (Ilm) generally in use in the Western World and those summarised by Franz Rosenthal (Source: Wikipedia) may be referred to, if so desired.

” It is not for any soul to believe except by Allah’s permission, while He lays uncleanliness (of infidelity) on those who do not contemplate” : (Yunus-10: 100)

In other words, the potential to think about the Universe and the creations using intellect bestowed on human beings is obligatory. Accordingly, to seek knowledge (Ilm) and using it, is a necessity and a duty. The obligation to contemplate is the characteristic that stands out as Adams’s superiority over Iblis. The demonstrated potential, both in spiritual and physical sense put together, convinced the angels concerning the superiority of Adam and to prostrate to him as commanded by Allah. The knowledge (Ilm) is one of the attributes of Allah. The same, with respect to the
entire Universe inclusive of mankind, is best defined as a byproduct of the intellect, bestowed by Allah on Adam. He is the owner of all the encompassing knowledge (Ilm) and it’s only and the absolute source. Allah’s gift of the intellect to mankind (Adam), which resulted in the acquisition of the knowledge (Ilm) and its use, makes it singularly different from all other creations.

“And verily, We shall recount their whole story with knowledge, for We were never absent (at any time or place)” : (Araf-7: 07)

” For when their messengers came to them with clear proofs, they exulted in the knowledge which was with them, and what they used to mock encompassed them” : (Mumin-40: 83)


The verse refers to those who exult (take pride) of their contemporary knowledge understanding) of some of the laws governing the creation of the Universe. They remain oblivious to the fact that they are merely discovering only some of the details of the laws made by Allah. At any particular place and time , scientific knowledge may not be perfect leaving much to be discovered later; but established scientific laws stand out as Allah’s decrees/commandments and being Allah’s Way (Sunnat) must be complied with. Inclusive therein, but not limited to, are all scientific known and unknown norms.


(i) Science is nothing but Allah’s Way (Sunnat). Accordingly, compliance to the established laws of science is obligatory and overrides other considerations.
(ii) The considerations pertaining to the forbidden women, as identified in (Nisa-4: 23), are entirely consistent with modern day science being Allah’s Way (Sunnat).

Separa-4 (Lan Tanulu) ends

Surah Nisa-4 (24-147) continues in the next Separa-5 (Wal Muhsanat)